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1.[Studies on alkalodial constituents in leaves of uncaria hirsuta]

[Article in Chinese]

Xin WB, Gu P, Chou GX, Wang ZT.

Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.

OBJECTIVE: To study the alkaloidial constituents of the leaves of uncaria hirsuta. METHOD: Some chromatographic methods were applied to isolate pure compounds and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. RESULT: Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as 19-epi-3-iso-ajmalicine (1), 3-isoajmalicine (2), harman (3), mitraphylline (4), isomitraphylline (5), isorhynchophylline (6), corynoxine (7), rhynchophylline (8), isomitraphyllic acid (9), uncarine A (10) and uncarine B (11). CONCLUSION: Compounds 1-9 were firstly isolated from this plant.

Publication Types: PMID: 19066056 [PubMed - in process]

2. [Origin and evolution of parasitism in mites of the infraorder Eleutherengona (Acari: Prostigmata). Report I. Lower Raphignathae]

[Article in Russian]

[No authors listed]

The evolution of animal parasitism in mites of the infraorder Eleutherengona (Prostigmata) is discussed. Parasitism has arisen independently in numerous phyletic lineages or superfamilies of this infraorder. Mites of the family Pterygosomatidae are parasites of terrestrial arthropods and lizards, and species of Myobiidae are exclusively associated with placental and marsupial mammals. Most families of the superfamily Cheyletoidea comprise permanent parasites of vertebrates, and mites of the sister families Cloacaridae and Epimyodicidae, whose phylogenetic relationships with other eleutherengones are unknown, are endoparasites of turtles and small mammals, respectively. Moreover, some families of the diverse cohort Heterostigmata include insect parasitoids or true parasites of insects. Some phylogenetic lineages, such as Heterostigmata and Cheyletoidea, present a series of life forms transitioning between free-living predators, nidicolous predators, fungivorous mites, and, finally, highly-specialized ecto- and endoparasites. The representatives of some phylogenetically distant eleutherengone lineages developed similar adaptations to predation and parasitism. However, in spite of some similarities in these adaptations, the evolutionary trends and pathways for switching to a parasitic mode of life are quite different in particular eleutherengone lineages. With a few exceptions, each eleutherengone lineage is associated with a particular host group. Temporary parasitism by the larval stage only, a life-history pattern characteristic of the Parasitengona, does not occur in these mites, and all active stages are parasitic and live on host, except for the cheyletid tribe Chelonotini where only adult females are parasites. Species in most eleutherengone lineages that parasitize hosts of particular groups are mono- or oligoxenous parasites, and, therefore, good potential models for co-phylogenetic studies. Mites of the family Pterygosomatidae are permanent parasites of lizards and various arthropods that typically live in concealed habitats. This family represents the only example of mites belonging to one exclusively parasitic eleutherengone group occurring on both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. The most probable explanation of the occurrence of this family on such varied host groups is host switching. It is hypothesized that Pimeliaphilus-like mites parasitized different arthropods living in concealed spaces and switched to parasitism on lizards that sought refuge in similar spaces. This host switch would have been ancient to account for the diversity of lizard parasites seen today. Mites of the family Myobiidae are ectoparasites of mall marsupial and placental mammals. The development of effective structures for attaching to mammalian hair, primarily involving the first pair of legs, has increased in complexity during myobiid evolution. The subfamily Xenomyobiinae includes a single species Xenomyobia hirsuta parasitizing the Peruan marsupial Lestoros inca. Legs I of this species are only slightly modified. Mites of the subfamily Archemyobiinae, tribe Archemyobiini parasitize other South American marsupials. In these mites, the genua of the female legs I bear paired ventral clasping organs. Mites of the tribe Australomyobiinae parasitize Australian marsupials. The last tribe and all other myobiids belonging to the subfamilies Protomyobiinae and Myobiinae have an unpaired attachment organ on genu I. The subfamily Protomyobiinae is separated onto 3 tribes. In more derivative members of the tribes Acanthophthiriini (parasites of bats), Protomyobiini (parasites of "insectivores"), and in all Elephantulobiini (parasites of elephant shrews), the tibia and tarsus of legs I are fused apically. Mites of the subfamily Myobiinae parasitize rodents and are the most morphologically specialized, with 3 apical segments of legs I fused. Basing on the wide distribution of myobiid mites on mammalian taxa, it could be concluded that the origin of parasitism occurred in these mites not later than in the Lower Cretaceous, the assumed time of divergence of marsupial and placental mammals (Carroll, 1993). The host associations of the superfamily Cloacaroidea is still unresolved problem. Mites of this superfamily show a high level of host specificity; however, cloacaroid families and subfamilies are associated with phylogenetically distant lineages of vertebrates, turtles (Cloacarinae), birds (Pneumophaginae), and mammals (Epimyodicidae). The common ancestor of cloacarines may have become associated with turtles before the late Triassic. We believe that parasitism of Pneumophagus bubonis, the single species of Pneumophaginae, in the lungs of Bubo virginianus (Aves: Strigiformes) is a result of an ancient host shift following predation by some birds on live or. dead turtles. All 4 currently known species of the Epimyodicidae are endoparasites in the subcutaneous tissues of voles (Rodentida: Cricetidae), moles, and shrews (Soricomorpha: Talpidae and Soricidae). The sister relationship between Cloacaridae and Epimyodicidae could reflect parasitism by their common ancestor on archaic amniotes before the divergence of the Synapsida (ancestors of mammals) and Diapsida (ancestors of turtles and birds). On the other hand, the ancestors of epimyodicids, retaining some features of their free-living ancestors, could have switched from diapsids onto synapsids considerably later.

Publication Types: PMID: 19065835 [PubMed - in process]

3. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat thoracic aorta by Mansoa hirsuta D.C.

Campana PR, Braga FC, Cortes SF.

Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

The vasodilator effect of the ethanolic extract of Mansoa hirsuta leaves (EEF) was assayed in rat aortic rings. EEF produced a concentration-dependent vasodilatation (pIC(50)=5.1+/-0.2), which was absent in endothelium-denuded vessels. The vasodilator effect of EEF was similar to a standardized ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (pIC(50)=5.1+/-0.1). The endothelium-dependent vasodilatation induced by EEF was abolished by L-NAME (100muM), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, but not by indomethacin (10muM; pIC(50)=4.9+/-0.2), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. The concentration-response curve of EEF was not modified by the addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD; 300U/ml). In addition, EEF (50mug/ml) displaced the 3-morpholino-sidnonimine (SIN-1; p<0.05) concentration-effect curve to the left, as well as SOD (300U/ml). These findings lead us to conclude that EEF induces a NO- and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in rat aortic preparations, and that this effect is, at least in some extent, due to an increase in the NO bioavailability as consequence of its antioxidant activity. The HPLC-DAD profile recorded for EEF indicates the presence of four major peaks with close retention times, exhibiting similar UV spectra with wavelength maxima compatible with heterogeneous proanthocyanidins.

PMID: 19019646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4. Enzymatic oxidation of manganese ions catalysed by laccase.

Gorbacheva M, Morozova O, Shumakovich G, Streltsov A, Shleev S, Yaropolov A.

Laboratory of Chemical Enzymology, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry RAS, 119071 Moscow, Russia.

The principal possibility of enzymatic oxidation of manganese ions by fungal Trametes hirsuta laccase in the presence of oxalate and tartrate ions, whereas not for plant Rhus vernicifera laccase, was demonstrated. Detailed kinetic studies of the oxidation of different enzyme substrates along with oxygen reduction by the enzymes show that in air-saturated solutions the rate of oxygen reduction by the T2/T3 cluster of laccases is fast enough not to be a readily noticeable contribution to the overall turnover rate. Indeed, the limiting step of the oxidation of high-redox potential compounds, such as chelated manganese ions, is the electron transfer from the electron donor to the T1 site of the fungal laccase.

PMID: 18976793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
5. Genetic Structure and Analysis of Host and Nonhost Interactions of Striga gesnerioides (Witchweed) from Central Florida.

Botanga CJ, Timko MP.

ABSTRACT Striga gesnerioides is a root hemiparasite of wild and cultivated legumes, among which cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Indigofera hirsuta are suitable hosts. In this study, we examined the genetic structure and host-parasite interaction of a strain of S. gesnerioides parasitizing I. hirsuta (SGFL) from central Florida (United States). Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to compare genetic profiles from 71 individual S. gesnerioides plants (SGFL) representing four different populations in central Florida. Our results showed that these individuals are genetically similar, with pairwise genetic distances ranging from 0.00 to 0.037. A cluster analysis grouped all four S. gesnerioides populations from Florida, separating them from S. gesnerioides isolates parasitic on I. hirsuta and cowpea collected from West Africa. One EcoRI and MseI selective primer combination generated a 510-bp fragment present in individuals from the SGFL and the West African isolate parasitic on I. hirsuta, but absent in isolates parasitic on cowpea. Germination of seed from individuals of all four populations of S. gesnerioides parasitic on I. hirsuta from Florida was stimulated by root exudates from cowpea genotypes Blackeye and TVX-3236, known to be highly susceptible to all races of S. gesnerioides parasitic on cowpea in West Africa. SGFL seedlings failed to parasitize cowpea, with the development of attached SGFL seedlings arrested at the tubercle stage. The very high level of genetic uniformity observed within and among the central Florida populations suggests that there was likely a single introduction of the parasite or strong host-driven selection to genetic uniformity.These findings are important in assessing the potential of the parasite as an agronomically significant pest in the United States.

PMID: 18943469 [PubMed - in process]

6.A membrane-, mediator-, cofactor-less glucose/oxygen biofuel cell.

Coman V, Vaz-Domínguez C, Ludwig R, Harreither W, Haltrich D, De Lacey AL, Ruzgas T, Gorton L, Shleev S.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden.

We report the fabrication and characterisation of a non-compartmentalised, mediator and cofactor free glucose-oxygen biofuel cell based on adsorbed enzymes exhibiting direct bioelectrocatalysis, viz. cellobiose dehydrogenase from Dichomera saubinetii and laccase from Trametes hirsuta as the anodic and cathodic bioelements, respectively, with the following characteristics: an open-circuit voltage of 0.73 V; a maximum power density of 5 microW cm(-2) at 0.5 V of the cell voltage and an estimated half-life of > 38 h in air-saturated 0.1 M citrate-phosphate buffer, pH 4.5 containing 5 mM glucose.

Publication Types: PMID: 18846297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7.Transmission efficiency of two flea species (Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta) involved in plague epizootics among prairie dogs.

Wilder AP, Eisen RJ, Bearden SW, Montenieri JA, Tripp DW, Brinkerhoff RJ, Gage KL, Antolin MF.

Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA. apwilder@lamar.colostate.edu

Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is an exotic disease in North America circulating predominantly in wild populations of rodents and their fleas. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to infection, often experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague. The fleas of black-tailed prairie dogs are Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta. We tested the efficiency of O. tuberculata cynomuris to transmit Y. pestis daily from 24 to 96 h postinfection and compared it to previously collected data for O. hirsuta. We found that O. tuberculata cynomuris has over threefold greater transmission efficiency (0.18 infected fleas transmit Y. pestis at 24 h postinfection) than O. hirsuta (0.05 fleas transmit). Using a simple model of flea-borne transmission, we combine these laboratory measurements with field data on monthly flea loads to compare the seasonal vectorial capacity of these two flea species. Coinciding with seasonal patterns of flea abundance, we find a peak in potential for flea-borne transmission in March, during high O. tuberculata cynomuris abundance, and in September-October when O. hirsuta is common. Our findings may be useful in determining the timing of insecticidal dusting to slow plague transmission in black-tailed prairie dogs.

Publication Types: PMID: 18787922 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. A developmental framework for dissected leaf formation in the Arabidopsis relative Cardamine hirsuta.

Barkoulas M, Hay A, Kougioumoutzi E, Tsiantis M.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK.

The developmental basis for the generation of divergent leaf forms is largely unknown. Here we investigate this problem by studying processes that distinguish development of two related species: Arabidopsis thaliana, which has simple leaves, and Cardamine hirsuta, which has dissected leaves with individual leaflets. Using genetics, expression studies and cell lineage tracing, we show that lateral leaflet formation in C. hirsuta requires the establishment of growth foci that form after leaf initiation. These growth foci are recruited at the leaf margin in response to activity maxima of auxin, a hormone that polarizes growth in diverse developmental contexts. Class I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) proteins also promote leaflet initiation in C. hirsuta, and here we provide evidence that this action of KNOX proteins is contingent on the ability to organize auxin maxima via the PINFORMED1 (PIN1) auxin efflux transporter. Thus, differential deployment of a fundamental mechanism polarizing cellular growth contributed to the diversification of leaf form during evolution.

PMID: 18690221 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

9. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming.

Thiagarajan B, Bai Y, Gage KL, Cully JF Jr.

Division of Biology, 232 Ackert Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA. bala.kstate@gmail.com

Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off.

Publication Types: PMID: 18689663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10. [Micellar laccase-catalyzed synthesis of electroconductive polyaniline]

[Article in Russian]

Strel'tsov AV, Shumakovich GP, Morozova OV, Gorbacheva MA, Iaropolov AI.

A method of enzymatic synthesis of electroconductive polyaniline on the micelles of dodecylben-zenesulfonic acid sodium salt (DBSNa) is proposed. The high potential laccase from the basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta was used as a biocatalyst. The conditions for polyaniline synthesis were optimized (pH 4.0; reagent concentrations, 10-20 mM; and aniline/DBSNa ratio, 2: 1). The resulting product was electrochemically active in the range of potentials from -200 to 600 mV, electroconductive, and capable of reversible dedoping with a change in pH of solution.

Publication Types: PMID: 18663952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).

Salkeld DJ, Stapp P.

IUCN--The World Conservation Union, NW, Washington, DC 20009, USA. dsalkeld@nature.berkeley.edu

Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts.

Publication Types:PMID: 18605787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Laccase electrode for direct electrocatalytic reduction of O2 to H2O with high-operational stability and resistance to chloride inhibition.

Vaz-Dominguez C, Campuzano S, Rüdiger O, Pita M, Gorbacheva M, Shleev S, Fernandez VM, De Lacey AL.

Instituto de Catálisis, CSIC, c/Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Laccase from Trametes hirsuta basidiomycete has been covalently bound to graphite electrodes electrochemically modified with phenyl derivatives as a way to attach the enzyme molecules with an adequate orientation for direct electron transfer (DET). Current densities up to 0.5mA/cm(2) of electrocatalytic reduction of O(2) to H(2)O were obtained in absence of redox mediators, suggesting preferential orientation of the T1 Cu centre of the laccase towards the electrode. The covalent attachment of the laccase molecules to the functionalized electrodes permitted remarkable operational stability. Moreover, O(2) bioelectroreduction based on DET between the laccase and the electrode was not inhibited by chloride ions, whereas mediated bioelectrocatalysis was. In contrast, fluoride ions inhibited both direct and mediated electron transfers-based bioelectrocatalytic reduction of O(2). Thus, two different modes of laccase inhibition by halides are discussed.

Publication Types: PMID: 18585029 [PubMed - in process]

13.Epibiotic bacteria associated with the recently discovered Yeti crab, Kiwa hirsuta.

Goffredi SK, Jones WJ, Erhlich H, Springer A, Vrijenhoek RC.

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. goffredi@caltech.edu

The Yeti crab, Kiwa hirsuta Macpherson et al., is the single known species in a recently discovered crab family Kiwaidae (Decapoda: Galatheoidea) from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Its chelipeds, walking legs and the ventral surface of its cephalothorax are covered with dense setae that, in turn, are covered with clusters of filamentous bacteria, making the crab appear extraordinarily 'hairy'. Electron microscopy revealed dense bacterial clusters attached to the chitinous outer layer of the setae. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed the setae-associated bacteria to be dominated by epsilon-Proteobacteria ( approximately 56% of the recovered ribotypes), gamma-Proteobacteria ( approximately 25%) and Bacteroidetes ( approximately 10%). Fluorescence in situ microscopy confirmed the attachment of filamentous epsilon-Proteobacteria on setae, but no specialized morphological structures appeared to exist for bacterial attachment. Key enzymes involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle (ATP-dependent citrate lyase) and sulfite oxidation or dissimilatory sulfate reduction (bidirectional APS reductase) were detected. Consequently, the potential for carbon fixation and cycling of reduced and oxidized sulfur appear to exist in the dense microflora that grows on the crab's setae.

Publication Types: PMID: 18564185 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14. Effects of laccase and xylanase on the chemical and rheological properties of oat and wheat doughs.

Flander L, Rouau X, Morel MH, Autio K, Seppänen-Laakso T, Kruus K, Buchert J.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT, Finland. laura.flander@vtt.fi

The effects of Trametes hirsuta laccase and Pentopan Mono BG xylanase and their combination on oat, wheat, and mixed oat-wheat doughs and the corresponding breads were investigated. Laccase treatment decreased the content of water-extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) in oat dough due to oxidative cross-linking of feruloylated arabinoxylans. Laccase treatment also increased the proportion of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSNSP) apparently due to the beta-glucanase side activity present in the laccase preparation. As a result of the laccase treatment, the firmness of fresh oat bread was increased. Xylanase treatment doubled the content of WEAX in oat dough and slightly increased the amount of WSNSP. Increased stiffness of the dough and firmness of the fresh bread were detected, probably because of the increased WEAX content, which decreased the amount of water available for beta-glucan. The combination of laccase and xylanase produced slight hydrolysis of beta-glucan by the beta-glucanase side activity of laccase and enhanced the availability of AX for xylanase with concomitant reduction of the amount and molar mass of WSNSP. Subsequently, the volume of oat bread was increased. Laccase treatment tightened wheat dough, probably due to cross-linking of WEAX to higher molecular weight. In oat-wheat dough, laccase slightly increased the proportion of WSNSP between medium to low molecular weight and increased the specific volume of the bread. Xylanase increased the contents of WEAX and WSNSP between medium to low molecular weight in oat-wheat dough, which increased the softness of the dough, as well as the specific volume and softness of the bread. The results thus indicate that a combination of laccase and xylanase was beneficial for the textures of both oat and oat-wheat breads.

Publication Types: PMID: 18558694 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. Antiproliferative effect of T/Tn specific Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA) on human leukemic cells (Jurkat, U937, K562) and their imaging by QD-ALA nanoconjugate.

Chatterjee U, Bose PP, Dey S, Singh TP, Chatterjee BP.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata, 700 032, India.

T/Tn specificity of Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA), isolated from the seeds of A. lakoocha (Moraceae) fruit and a heterodimer (16 kD and 12 kD) of molecular mass 28 kD, was further confirmed by SPR analysis using T/Tn glycan containing mammalian glycoproteins. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of ALA showed homology at 15, 19-21, 24-27, and 29 residues with other lectin members of Moraceae family viz., Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin) lectin, Artocarpus hirsuta lectin, and Maclura pomifera agglutinin. It is mitogenic to human PBMC and the maximum proliferation was observed at 1 ng/ml. It showed an antiproliferative effect on leukemic cells, with the highest effect toward Jurkat cells (IC(50) 13.15 ng/ml). Synthesized CdS quantum dot-ALA nanoconjugate was employed to detect the expression of T/Tn glycans on Jurkat, U937, and K562 leukemic cells surfaces as well as normal lymphocytes by fluorescence microscopy. No green fluorescence was observed with normal lymphocytes indicating that T/Tn determinants, which are recognized as human tumor associated structures were cryptic on normal lymphocyte surfaces, whereas intense green fluorescent dots appeared during imaging of leukemic cells, where such determinants were present in unmasked form. The above results indicated that QD-ALA nanoconjugate is an efficient fluorescent marker for identification of leukemic cell lines that gives rise to high quality images.

PMID: 18521747 [PubMed - in process]

16. Fitting together: copulatory linking in some Neotropical Chrysomeloidea.

Flowers RW, Eberhard WG.

Center for Biological Control, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA. rflowers@mail.istal.com

Copulatory linking of male and female genitalic structures in 11 Neotropical species of Chrysomelidae and one species of Megalopodidae was studied by freezing and then dissecting pairs of beetles in copula. In Megalopus armatus (Megalopodidae) the male has a long endophallus with complex membranous protuberances and a terminal flagellum that probably reaches the spermatheca. In the subfamily Eumolpinae the females have telescoping ovipositors through which the male endophalli pass, reaching to or near the mouth of the spermathecal duct. A long thin flagellum is probably inserted into the spermathecal duct. The male endophalli are braced inside the female using various structures, including two pairs of lateral appendages and apical appendages (both lateral pairs sclerotized in Colaspis sanjoseana and only the basal pair in Brachypnoea irazuensis), a pair of membranous swellings (in Metaxyonycha amasia), and apical microspicules on the endophallus (in Xanthonia). In the subfamily Galerucinae, males of Metrioidea and Diabrotica (tribe Galerucini) have relatively short endophalli ornamented with sclerotized hooks, spines and needles. In Metrioidea elongata the long needle-like endophallic spines of the male were erected inside the female and penetrated the wall of her bursa. In the tribe Alticini, the male endophallus is very short and does not enter the female in two species, Alagoasa gemmata and Walterianella sp. Instead, the apical parts of the female bursae were everted, and were clamped by sclerites of the male median lobe. The male genitalia of Plectrotetra hirsuta reached deep into the female, to the median oviduct, far beyond the mouth of the spermathecal duct. Both rigid and membranous structures meshed in complex ways. When these observations are combined with published descriptions of mating in other Chrysomelidae, the great diversity of copulatory morphology in these families comes into sharper focus.

Publication Types: PMID: 18491623 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17. Oropsylla hirsuta (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) can support plague epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) by early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis.

Wilder AP, Eisen RJ, Bearden SW, Montenieri JA, Gage KL, Antolin MF.

Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA. apwilder@lamar.colostate.edu

Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, often leads to rapid decimation of black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Flea-borne transmission of Y. pestis has been thought to occur primarily via blocked fleas, and therefore studies of vector efficiency have focused on the period when blockage is expected to occur (> or =5 days post-infection [p.i.]). Oropsylla hirsuta, a prairie dog flea, rarely blocks and transmission is inefficient > or =5 days p.i.; thus, this flea has been considered incapable of explaining rapid dissemination of Y. pestis among prairie dogs. By infecting wild-caught fleas with Y. pestis and exposing naďve mice to groups of fleas at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h p.i., we examined the early-phase (1-4 days p.i.) efficiency of O. hirsuta to transmit Y. pestis to hosts and showed that O. hirsuta is a considerably more efficient vector at this largely overlooked stage (5.19% of fleas transmit Y. pestis at 24 h p.i.) than at later stages. Using a model of vectorial capacity, we suggest that this level of transmission can support plague at an enzootic level in a population when flea loads are within the average observed for black-tailed prairie dogs in nature. Shared burrows and sociality of prairie dogs could lead to accumulation of fleas when host population is reduced as a result of the disease, enabling epizootic spread of plague among prairie dogs.

Publication Types: PMID: 18454591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18.Saccharopolyspora antimicrobica sp. nov., an actinomycete from soil.

Yuan LJ, Zhang YQ, Guan Y, Wei YZ, Li QP, Yu LY, Li WJ, Zhang YQ.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, PR China.

Three Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-acid-alcohol-fast strains, designated I05-00051, I05-00074T and I03-00808, were isolated from different soil samples in Beijing and Sichuan, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed that these three isolates represented the same genospecies. These three strains showed <97.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of recognized species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, with the exception of Saccharopolyspora hirsuta subsp. hirsuta DSM 43463T (98.1 % gene sequence similarity) and Saccharopolyspora spinosa DSM 44228T (98.0 % similarity). Chemotaxonomic data, including meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, arabinose and galactose as predominant sugars, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major fatty acids, MK-9(H4) as predominant menaquinone and polar lipids dominated by diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol, supported the affiliation of these three organisms to the genus Saccharopolyspora. The genomic DNA G+C contents of the three isolates were 68.2-69.9 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments among these three isolates and S. hirsuta subsp. hirsuta DSM 43463T and S. spinosa DSM 44228T, in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data, demonstrated that the three new isolates represent a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora antimicrobica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is I05-00074T (=CCM 7463T=KCTC 19303T).

Publication Types: PMID: 18450710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19.No evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.

Salkeld DJ, Stapp P.

Department of Biological Science, California State University, Fullerton, CA 94720, USA. dsalkeld@nature.berkeley.edu <dsalkeld@nature.berkeley.edu>

Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. One suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. We examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern Colorado, where plague is active in prairie dog colonies. Deer mice were predominantly infested with the flea Aetheca wagneri, and were rarely infested with prairie dog fleas, Oropsylla hirsuta. Likelihood of flea infestation increased with average monthly temperature, and flea loads were higher in reproductive animals. These results suggest that the deer mouse is an unlikely maintenance host of plague in this region.

PMID: 18447619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20.Formation of protein-oligosaccharide conjugates by laccase and tyrosinase.

Selinheimo E, Lampila P, Mattinen ML, Buchert J.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, Espoo FIN-02044 VTT, Finland. Emilia.Selinheimo@vtt.fi

Proteins and certain carbohydrates contain phenolic moieties, which are potential sites for modification of the function of the biopolymers. In this study, the capability of two different fungal oxidative enzymes, laccase from Trametes hirsuta (ThL) and tyrosinase from Trichoderma reesei (TrT), to catalyze formation of hetero-cross-linking between tyrosine side chains of alpha-casein and phenolic acids of hydrolyzed oat spelt xylan (hOSX) was studied. Formation of reaction products was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), fluorescence spectroscopy, and SDS-PAGE, using specific staining methods for proteins and protein-carbohydrate conjugates. ThL and TrT were observed to differ significantly in their ability to catalyze the formation of protein-carbohydrate conjugates or the linking of the small molecular weight phenolic compounds to alpha-casein. The efficiency of these enzymes to directly cross-link protein also differed notably. TrT was able to cross-link alpha-casein more efficiently than ThL. ThL-catalyzed casein cross-linking was significantly enhanced by ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and also hOSX. The main reaction products by ThL appeared to be phenolic acid-bridged alpha-caseins. Indications of hetero-cross-link formation between alpha-casein and hOSX by both oxidative enzymes could be visualized by glycoprotein-specific staining in the SDS-PAGE analysis, although ThL was observed to be more effective in the heteroconjugate formation than TrT.

Publication Types: PMID: 18422326 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21. Demographic parameters of wrinkling aphid of pistachio leaf, Forda hirsuta Mordv. (Hem.:Pemphigidae) insitu of Rafsanjan's orchards.

Mohammadi RS, Samih MA, Rezvani A, Talebi AA.

Department of Plant protection, Islamic Azad University of Arak, Iran. rayehersm@yahoo.com

Wrinkling aphid of pistachio leaf, Forda hirsuta Mordv. (Hem.:Pemphigidae) is one of the pests of pistachio trees. This aphid caused the shrinkage, thickening, and changing the color of the pistachio leaves. Since insect feeds from leave edges, the thick and rolled upward wrinkles were formed, which its green color turned into red. Therefore, its economical damages are out of direct feeding from plant extraction, twisting pistachio leaves, and the decrease of photosynthesis. In this research two orchards and 10 trees that each of them were selected in Rafsanjan region and 58 fundatrix galls, 120 nymphal galls were marked and the demographic parameters for apterus parthenogenesis female of this aphid were calculated via daily observations. The results indicated that intrinsic rates of increase (r) for 1, 2 and 3 generations were 0.01, 0.0638 and 0.0575 femal/femal/days respectively, Doubling time (DT) were 69.31, 10.52 and 12.04 days, respectively, net fecundity rates were 1.71, 11.5 and 7.37 femal/femal/days, respectively, Net fertility rates were 1.11, 8.87 and 5.01 days, respectively, and mean generation times (Tc) were calculated to be 31.5, 32.2 and 31.87 days, respectively. Other reproductive parameters such as gross hatch rate, gross fecundity rate, gross fertility rate, mean age gross fecundity and fertility, mean age net fecundity and fertility, mean age hatch, finite rate of increase (lambda), intrinsic birth rate (b) intrinsic death rate (d) and daily reproductive rate were also calculated. The results revealed that population parameters especially r in the first and second generations were lowest and highest, respectively and mean longevity of fundatrix was 30 days and the born nymphs made separate galls in the edge of pistachio leaves.

PMID: 18399477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22. Selection of newly isolated mushroom strains for tolerance and biosorption of zinc in vitro.

Gonen Tasdemir F, Yamac M, Cabuk A, Yildiz Z.

Graduate Schools of Natural and Applied Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir, Turkey.

Nine newly isolated mushroom strains were tested to assess both their zinc tolerance and potential for zinc removal from an aqueous solution. Four strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi, namely Clavariadelphus truncatus (T 192), Rhizopogon roseolus (T 21), Lepista nuda (T 373), and Tricholoma equestre (T 174), along with five strains of white rot fungi, Lenzites betulina (S 2), Trametes hirsuta (T 587), Ganoderma spp. (T 99), Polyporus arcularius (T 438), and Ganoderma carnosum (M 88), were investigated using zinc-amended solid and liquid media. Their biosorption properties were also determined. The colony diameter and dry weight were used as tolerance indices for fungal growth. C. truncatus and T. equestre were not strongly inhibited at the highest concentrations of (225 mg/l) zinc in solid media. The most tolerant four strains with solid media, C. truncatus, G. carnosum, T. hirsuta, and T. equestre, were then chosen for tolerance tests in liquid media. An ectomycorrhizal strain, C. truncatus, was also detected as the most tolerant strain in liquid media. However, the metal-tolerant strains demonstrated weak activity in the biosorption studies. In contrast, the highest biosorption activity was presented by a more sensitive strain, G. carnosum. In addition, seven different biosorbent types from G. carnosum (M 88) were compared for their Zn (II) biosorption in batch experiments.

PMID: 18388466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Enzymatic removal of off-flavors from apple juice.

Schroeder M, Pöllinger-Zierler B, Aichernig N, Siegmund B, Guebitz GM.

Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.

Contaminating microorganisms such as Actinomycetes, Alicyclobacillus, and Chlostridium can generate off-flavors in apple juices. Such bacterial metabolites represent, besides phenol types such as guaiacol and 2,6-dibromophenol, a broad range of other chemicals, for example, geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, or alpha-terpineol. A laccase from Trametes hirsuta was purified, immobilized, and applied for the selective elimination of off-flavor substances in apple juice caused by microbial contamination. The evaluation using GC-MS showed that enzymatic treatment could reduce the amount of guaiacol and 2,6-dibromophenol in apple juice significantly by 99 and 52%, respectively. Upon addition of mediators, the degradation could be increased and the spectrum of substrates extented. Furthermore, commercial apple juices spiked with off-flavors were treated in a continuous-flow reactor and tested by sensory evaluation.

PMID: 18318500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24. C-banding analysis of eight species of Kengyilia (Poaceae: Triticeae).

Zeng J, Cao G, Liu J, Zhang HQ, Zhou YH.

Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Dujiangyan, Sichuan, China.

To characterize chromosomes and the interspecific relationships within the genus Kengyilia, 8 species were used for Giemsa C-banding analysis. Results indicated that the species differed in C-banding patterns. K. gobicola, K. alatavica and K. batalinii had distinct centromeric bands and no banded chromosomes, while K. hirsuta, K. longiglumis, K. melanthera, K. rigidula and K. thoroldiana had more abundant and diagnostic C-bands with interstitial and terminal bands.

Publication Types: PMID: 18263965 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Identification of white-rot and soft-rot fungi increasing ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Holmgren M, Sellstedt A.

Department of Plant Physiology, Umeĺ Plant Science Center, Umeĺ University, S-90187 Umeĺ, Sweden.

AIM: To identify fungi that are capable of increasing ethanol production from lignocellulose in spent sulfite liquor. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a batch fermentation study, the fungal mix could produce 24.61 g l(-1) ethanol using spent sulfite liquor as substrate. The fungal mix grew well on glucose, xylose, hemicellulose and cellulose. In addition, we were able to identify the fungal mix by use of PCR-amplification of DNA and sequencing, and they were identified as Chalara parvispora and Trametes hirsuta/T. versicolor. In a reconstitution study, the identified fungi were shown to produce equal amount of ethanol as the fungal mix. We were also able to show that C. parvispora could produce ethanol from xylose. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that ethanol production from biomass can be increased by use of C. parvispora and T. versicolor when compared with fermentation using only S. cerevisiae. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study shows that refining biomass by ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor, a lignocellulose material, can be increased by adding C. parvispora and T. versicolor, and it is thus of great potential economical impact.

Publication Types: PMID: 18248376 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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